Raw data  from So, R.H.Y., Lo, W.T., and Ho, A.H.K., (2001), Effects of Navigation Speed on Motion Sickness Caused by an Immersive Virtual Environment, HUMAN FACTORS, Vol.43, No.3:452-461(PDF file download)


l       Introduction:

This experiment investigated the effects of navigation speed on the level of motion sickness associated with exposure to VE (Virtual Environment).


l       Subjects:

Participants were 96 male Chinese university students and staff between 19 and 38 years of age. All were consenting volunteers without color blindness and had not been exposed to any VE with the previous 4 weeks.


l       Apparatus:

u       Virtual Research VR4 LCD head-mounted display : 48* 36 deg field of view and binocular mode

u       Polhemus 3-SPACE magnetic tracker: mounted on the display to measure head position and orientation at a rate of 30/s

u       dVISE software

u       Silicon Graphics ONXY(Silicon Graphics, Mountain View, CA) workstation


l       Virtual Environment(VE):

The VE contained a virtual city with trees, railway trackers, overhead cables, trains, a train station, and skyscrapers. During exposure to the VE, the subjects’ viewpoint navigated along a predetermined path, and subjects could steer their viewpoint using head movements.

Click here to download an .avi file of the VR simulation (with fore and aft r.m.s. navigation speed of 59.2 m/s )"

l       Subject variable:

u       Pre-exposure SSQ:    >>download the raw sub-score data

                                     >> download the raw symptom data


l       Independent variable:

u       Navigation speed:    >>download raw data


l       Dependent variable:

u       Nausea rating:             >>download raw data

u       Vection rating:            >>download raw data

u       Post-exposure SSQ:  >>download the raw sub-score data

                                                    >> download the raw symptom data

u       Change of SSQ: >>download raw data


l       Experiment design:

This experiment used a full factorial between-subject design. That means that each of the subjects will only randomly take one condition of the experiment. There are totally 96 subjects and 8 levels of conditions (8 different navigation speeds), therefore every condition will have 12 replicates, that is to say, each condition is tested on 12 participants.

The duration of exposure to the VE is 30 min.


l       Experiment procedure:

1.         Before VE exposure, all subjects completed a pre-exposure SSQ.

2.         Subjects are educated to separately vection from perceived speed.

3.         Each subject is randomly assigned to one of the eight navigation speeds.

4.         During the exposure, subjects are asked to turn their heads horizontally to one side(covering about 45in about 1s), orally describe what they saw, and turn back to fact the front. This is repeated once every 30s, alternatively between left and right.

5.    At 5-min intervals, participants are asked to orally rate their symptoms of nausea on a 7-point scale and their sensation of vection on a 4-point scale.

6.         After the exposure, the participants completed a  post-exposure SSQ.



1.         If a participant reported any moderate symptom of discomfort or sickness in the pre-exposure SSQ, the participant was asked to rest for 10 min prior to filling in a second pre-exposure SSQ.

2.         During the exposure, if a participant reports the maximum rating of 6 on the nausea scale (moderate nausea, want to stop), the simulation is terminated and the subject is asked to complete the post-exposure SSQ. For those participants, a score of 6 is assigned for the remaining verbal rating reports.

If you have questions or want to get more information, please contact Richard So for further details.

Richard So
Virtual Reality and Human Performance Laboratory
Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.